Ground Data Solutions (GDS) provides highly accurate, dense topographic, and imagery survey data for dam survey feasibility studies, design, operation and maintenance. In remote, densely forested, and highly undulating terrain, LiDAR is the best technology for accurate measurement of ground elevation, as airborne LiDAR can penetrate the forest canopy to ascertain ground levels.

LiDAR Point Cloud


LiDAR provides extremely accurate geo-referenced information that is prime for mapping and determining the best dam structure location and position, access and service road construction and dam volume measurement. In addition, slope stability, sedimentation analysis, and flood modeling of the reservoir may be established.

  • Provides accurate and high density topographical and digital imagery data and Minimize survey time and cost.
  • Allows for most cost effective design of dam, minimizing earth works and quantities while maximizing value. Accurate measurement of dam volume and precise study of slope stability.
  • Optimizes dam infrastructure design including access route. Provides inputs into analysis of sedimentation. Allows for accurate inundation modeling. Provides extremely accurate information for dam feasibility study, design , operation, and maintenance.
LiDAR Point Cloud of Dam Structure


  • LiDAR Mapping and aerial photography for the proposed Belaga and Linau Hydropower project
  • Airborne LiDAR and digital topographical survey for Minihydro, Terengganu
  • Telom hydroelectric project feasibility study
  • LiDAR Mapping and aerial photography for the reservoir area of the Murum hydroelectric project
  • Kahang Dam Construction Project in Kluang, Johor
  • Design and Construction work for Water Supply Scheme of Tawau, Sabah 
  • LiDAR survey near Muruk Miau , Sipitang , Sabah 
  • Hydropower development projects, Sarawak 


Airborne Laser and Digital Topographical Survey for Minihydro, Terengganu

  • Project area :  59.3 km2.
  • Six days of LiDAR data acquisition and GPS static survey.
  • DTM /DEM & Contour processing: 4 days.
  • Orthophoto Mosaic Processing: 5 days.
  • LiDAR Density: More than 9,873,500 points in 1 km x 1 km (9.87 points /m2).
  • LiDAR Points Hitting the Ground: More than 1,268,500 points in 1 km x 1km (1.27 points/m2).
  • Average Point Spacing: 0.89 m.
Digital Terrain Model (DTM)
LiDAR Point Cloud at Project Site

Project Description: 

The project was commissioned by Jernih Perintis Sdn. Bhd. to conduct an airborne laser and digital imagery topographical survey in Terengganu. The purpose of the survey was to provide necessary data and information required for ongoing studies, investigation, and design of the proposed mini-hydroelectric plant.  The size of the project area was 56.3 km² and comprised of Sg Berang (3.6 km²), Sg Nipah (2.0 km²), Sg Loh (4 km²), Sg Tersat (1.2 km²), Sg Dungun (1.4 km²), Sg Pelagat (1.2 km²), Sg Tembat (0.8 km²), Sg Telemong (0.7 km²) and road survey (41.38 km²). The LiDAR data was acquired over two phases involving a total of six (6) flight missions.   

The first phase of the data acquisition was compiled during monsoon season (Nov-Dec) in Terengganu. Despite of the bad weather, the team was successful in completing the project. The LiDAR data and image processing was completed in six (6) days while the orthophoto mosaic processing took five (5) days. The average point spacing of the data was 0.32m for all points and the average ground point spacing was 0.89m. The LiDAR density of the project was 9.87 points/ m². Ground Data Solutions (GDS) implemented rigorous quality assurance and quality control procedures for the horizontal and vertical accuracies, ground survey methods, LiDAR sensor calibration, and data processing throughout the project. In spite of several days of rainfall during the data acquisition, the project was successfully completed and satisfied the required specifications per project Terms of Reference (TOR).

2. Airborne Laser and Aerial Photography for the Proposed Belaga and Linau Hydropower Projects

  • Project Area: 650 km². LiDAR Data Acquisition and GPS Static Surveying: 10 days 
  • DTM/DEM & Contour Delivered: 4 weeks after airborne data acquisition completed. Orthophoto Mosaic Delivered: 5 weeks after airborne data acquisition completed
  • Final Mapping Delivered: 7 weeks after airborne data acquisition completed. LiDAR Density: More than 10,000,000 in 1 km x 1 km (10.0 points/m²)
  • LiDAR Points Hitting the Ground: More than 1,074,977 in 1 km x 1 km (1.1 points/m²). Average Point Spacing: 1.0 m

Project Description: 

GDS was commissioned by Syarikat Sesco Berhad to carry out a LiDAR survey, aerial photography, data processing and mapping for the Linau-Belaga area in Sarawak. The study area included the Linau area, near the Murum hydroelectric project, and the jungle area around Belaga. The objective was to provide information required to investigate the reservoir’s volume and the extent of inundation area for the surrounding landscape, covering approximately 650km². The project was completed within 10 days, despite bad weather, with low clouds caused by excessive rain, and challenging, mountainous terrain, which also caused strong winds.

The purpose of this survey was to provide all the necessary data and information required to understand and map the drainage patterns and flood areas into the river, with the purpose of analyzing the potential water flow and hydroelectric capacity of the rivers, leading up to the design and construction of hydroelectric generators around the proposed areas. Flood level checking was performed after each flight mission to ensure the full inundation area was captured as per client requirement. GDS implemented rigorous quality assurance and quality control procedures, which involved more than 40 check points utilizing Topcon Tools base stations and comparing the data with the LiDAR points. The LiDAR data itself was acquired while maintaining two static base stations during the airborne data collection, which were pre-calibrated for four hours each. The final ASPRS fundamental vertical accuracy was 0.11 m for both Belaga and Linau. This successful project either met or exceeded Syarikat Sesco Berhad’s requirements as specified in the project’s Terms of Reference.